smoking during pregnancy considerably increases the risk of having a child with behavioral problems. This is noticeable in children as young as three years of age.
... Mothers were categorized into light and heavy smokers, depending on how many cigarettes they smoked every day during pregnancy.
... they were asked to grade their three year old children's behavior. They focused particularly on behavioral problems and hyperactivity-attention deficit disorders.
Behavioral conduct problems were based on answers to questions about: • the child's temper • the frequency of physical fights • bullying of other children • being argumentative with adults
... boys whose mothers smoked throughout pregnancy were significantly more likely to have behavioral problems, be hyperactive, and have low attention spans than boys whose mothers did not.
Boys whose mothers smoked heavily throughout pregnancy were almost twice as likely to display behavioral problems ... sons of light smokers ... were almost 80 percent more likely to have hyperactivity-attention deficit disorders.
... daughters of ... smokers were significantly more likely to display behavioral problems than girls whose mothers did not smoke.
... "Smoking during pregnancy may damage the developing structure and function of the fetal brain ...