Physiological third stage


No previous study has focused on true physiological third stage for women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Physiological third stage is often chosen by women who birth at home or with a private midwife, however hospital policies urge active management of the third stage (injection of syntocinon, immediate clamping and cutting of the cord and then pulling the placenta out) because studies have shown that this form of management reduces bleeding. However, those studies have either a) not clearly defined physiological management or b) not managed the "physiological" third stages in a physiological manner.

This study clearly defines what is meant by physiological management and also the women who are suitable for physiological management. Some women are at a higher risk of PPH and so active management was recommended to those women in the study.

The study compared active management which was standard at the tertiary hospital, with physiological management which was the norm at the free-standing birth centre. At the tertiary unit, 11.2% low-risk women experienced a PPH. At the midwifery-led unit, where physiological management was practiced, PPH only occurred in 2.8% women. Active management was associated with 11.5% PPHs compared with physiological management which was 1.7% PPHs. Active management was associated with a seven to eight fold increase in PPH for low-risk women.

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